Reference: Fine PG, Portenoy RK. "Chapter 2: The Endogenous Opioid System". A Clinical Guide to Opioid Analgesia. McGraw Hill. 2004. P. 11. Erowele GI. Alvimopan (Entereg), a Peripherally Acting mu-Opioid Receptor Antagonist For Postoperative Ileus. Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2008;33(10):574-583.
Physical exam is more sensitive than personal and family history of a candidate at pre-participation physical.
Family history of musculoskeletal disease is the most critical determinant of future morbidity or mortality.
Pre-participation physical is highly effective in determining risk of sudden death in athletes.
Children should be screened routinely with 12-lead ECG to rule out long-QT syndrome.
American College of Sports Medicine does not recommend routine exercise stress-testing in children starting a vigorous exercise program.
References: 1. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2683.html#sec-1 2. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-preparticipation-sports-examination-in-children-and-adolescents?source=search_result&search=preparticipation+physical&selectedTitle=1~6
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